EU Guidelines to Good Manufacturing Practice Medicinal Products for Human and Veterinary Use – Annex 1

Part 2

Isolator technology

21. The utilisation of isolator technology to minimize human interventions in processing areas may result in a significant decrease in the risk of microbiological contamination of aseptically manufactured products from the environment. There are many possible designs of isolators and transfer devices. The isolator and the background environment should be designed so that the required air quality for the respective zones can be realised. Isolators are constructed of various materials more or less prone to puncture and leakage. Transfer devices may vary from a single door to double door designs to fully sealed systems incorporating sterilisation mechanisms.

22. The transfer of materials into and out of the unit is one of the greatest potential sources of contamination. In general the area inside the isolator is the local zone for high risk manipulations, although it is recognised that laminar air flow may not exist in the working zone of all such devices.

23. The air classification required for the background environment depends on the design of the isolator and its application. It should be controlled and for aseptic processing it should be at least grade D.

24. Isolators should be introduced only after appropriate validation. Validation should take into account all critical factors of isolator technology, for example the quality of the air inside and outside (background) the isolator, sanitisation of the isolator, the transfer process and isolator integrity.

25. Monitoring should be carried out routinely and should include frequent leak testing of the isolator and glove/sleeve system.

Blow/fill/seal technology

26. Blow/fill/seal units are purpose built machines in which, in one continuous operation, containers are formed from a thermoplastic granulate, filled and then sealed, all by the one automatic machine. Blow/fill/seal equipment used for aseptic production which is fitted with an effective grade A air shower may be installed in at least a grade C environment, provided that grade A/B clothing is used. The environment should comply with the viable and non viable limits at rest and the viable limit only when in operation. Blow/fill/seal equipment used for the production of products which are terminally sterilised should be installed in at least a grade D environment.

27. Because of this special technology particular attention should be paid to, at least the following:

  • equipment design and qualification
  • validation and reproducibility of cleaning-in-place and sterilisation-in-place
  • background clean room environment in which the equipment is located
  • operator training and clothing
  • interventions in the critical zone of the equipment including any aseptic assembly prior to the commencement of filling.

Terminally sterilised products

28. Preparation of components and most products should be done in at least a grade D environment in order to give low risk of microbial and particulate contamination, suitable for filtration and sterilisation. Where the product is at a high or unusual risk of microbial contamination, (for example, because the product actively supports microbial growth or must be held for a long period before sterilisation or is necessarily processed not mainly in closed vessels), then preparation should be carried out in a grade C environment.

29. Filling of products for terminal sterilisation should be carried out in at least a grade C environment.

30. Where the product is at unusual risk of contamination from the environment, for example because the filling operation is slow or the containers are wide-necked or are necessarily exposed for more than a few seconds before sealing, the filling should be done in a grade A zone with at least a grade C background. Preparation and filling of ointments, creams, suspensions and emulsions should generally be carried out in a grade C environment before terminal sterilisation.


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